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Sedimentdynamiek van het Benedenrivierengebied van de Rijn

Start: 9-2018
End: 9-2022
Status: Active

Contact details

Jana Cox

Universiteit Utrecht


River deltas, particularly deep dredged ones like the Rhine-Meuse are lacking in sediment, adaptation measures, particularly in the face of climate change, are urgently needed

Figure 1Experiment photo, by Jana Cox

Motivation and Practical Challenge

Most of the Dutch population live in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The delta area, like other deltas worldwide needs sufficient sediment (sand and mud) from upstream rivers and the coast to keep up with sea level rise. Since the 1500s, the delta area has been altered for navigation, reclaimed for housing and protected against floods through dikes and sluices. Recently, dredging in particular, has altered the amount of sediment entering the delta, which has negative impacts for flood safety, infrastructure and nature. This dredging takes place as ships grow in size which need to be accommodated by the Port of Rotterdam. We measure and predict how much sediment is removed annually and how this affects processes in the delta from historical times, to the current situation and into the next century. Other deltas globally are also facing the same challenges, which will get more serious with climate change.

Research Challenge

The following questions will be adressed in the research

  • What is the past, current and future sediment budget of the Rhine-Meuse delta?
  • How much sediment is there and where is it located?
  • How has/will human activities and climate change impact(ed) these activities?
  • What solutions exist globally that could be applied to the delta to offset negative impacts of a negative sediment budget?

Innovative components

The following aspects can be considered innovative

  • A current sediment budget is calculated using measurement data from the delta
  • A future budget is predicted using climate predictions and a novel predictor for dredging
  • A long term budget is predicted using historical and geological maps
  • Effects of climate change are predicted using scale-experiments
  • Potential erosion in certain areas is analyzed using 1D modelling
  • Strategies which can offset negative effects from global case studies are analyzed through a review with multidisciplinary partners

Relevant for whom and where?

  • People who live or work in river deltas
  • Managers of rivers deltas
  • Dredging/engineering firms

The findings and methods can be applied to other deltas globally

Findings and practical application

Urban developed deltas which experience dredging have negative sediment budgets.
In the case of the Rhine-Meuse, the distribution of this sediment also means that nature areas and infrastructure are at risk, meanwhile dredging costs will increase in the future
Human activity completely overwhelms climate change related sediment problems in the delta both now and in the future.
Deep systems like the Rhine-Meuse delta will see serious effects in the upstream riverine parts of the delta due to sea-level rise which creates risks for flooding and infrastructure.
The influence of human actions on the system has accelerated in the past 30 years, far beyond natural rates of change in the delta.
Strategies to enhance sedimentation exist, but they are expensive and require sufficient space to be implemented.

Status for day-to-day practice

The amount and distribution of sediment in river deltas needs to be quantified to identify where sediment is required and to apply potential adaptation measures. These measures require time and money to be implemented and effective.

Next steps

In the Rhine-Meuse delta, the amount and circulation of sediment in the mouth area (what comes in from the sea) is difficult to quantify, but is an important puzzle piece in determining how the delta will adapt to climate change, more measurements are needed!

Last modified: 09/11/2022

Supervisory team

prof. dr. Maarten Kleinhans

Universiteit Utrecht

prof. dr. Hans Middelkoop

Universiteit Utrecht

Budget voor fijn sediment in de Rijn-Maasmonding

Jana Cox

Universiteit Utrecht

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Project outputs

Exploring the mechanisms that govern the spatial and temporal trends of suspended sediment in the Rhine basin

28/02/2024 by Jana Cox

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Bevat: Samenvatting

Anthropogenic Effects on the Contemporary Sediment Budget of the Lower Rhine‐Meuse Delta Channel Network

In this research, we construct sediment budgets which quantify annual changes for the urbanized Rhine‐Meuse Delta of the Netherlands, a typical urban delta experiences changing fluvial and coastal fluxes of sediment, engineering works and dredging and dumping activities. The delta shows a negative sediment budget (more outgoing than incoming sediment) since the 1980s, due to anthropogenic intervention.

01/07/2021 by Jana Cox

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Bevat: Publicatie

Effecten van zeespiegelstijging op baggeren en riviermondingmorfologie

Aan de hand van schaalexperimenten, empirische relaties en praktijkvoorbeelden van riviermondingen en delta's wereldwijd, stellen wij vast dat baggeren en SLR samen de bochtmigratie versterken, terwijl SLR alleen leidt tot decentralisatie van kanalen en verdrinking van het intergetijdengebied.

05/10/2022 by Jana Cox

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Een globale synthese van de doeltreffendheid van sedimentatiebevorderende strategieën voor rivierdelta's en riviermondingen

This synthesis enables intercomparison between SES and helps to further evaluate advantages and drawbacks of each SES. It can also help to guide the design of future strategies in other deltas. Our comparison includes their cost, their (projected) elevation gain, spatial footprints, lifetime, land-use, and required governance arrangements.

01/07/2022 by Jana Cox

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De effecten van zeespiegelstijging op de riviermondingmorfologie in gebaggerde en ongebaggerde systemen

Wij bestuderen het effect van SLR op natuurlijke versus gebaggerde kanalen aan de hand van schaalexperimenten van riviermondingen om na te gaan hoe SLR de baggerpraktijk zal beïnvloeden en welke effecten dit zal hebben op de kanalen (zullen ze eroderen?) en de omliggende gebieden (zullen ze verdrinken?).

06/06/2022 by Jana Cox

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Sedimenttekort en morfologische verandering van de Rijn-Maasmonding toegeschreven aan meerjarige antropogene invloeden

In dit onderzoek traceren we de ontwikkeling van één systeem, de Rijn-Maasdelta in Nederland (RMD) van twee natuurlijke estuaria (de RME gevoed door de Rijn en de HVL gevoed door de Maas) tot een dicht verstedelijkte delta en het effect dat menselijke activiteiten in de loop der tijd hebben gehad op de morfologie ervan.

15/07/2022 by Jana Cox

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Bevat: Publicatie

Synthese Rivers2Morrow

In dit synthese rapport is meer informatie te vinden over het Rivers2Morrow Programma en de bijbehorende projecten.

27/06/2022 by Wybren de Jong

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Bevat: Algemene Informatie Rivers2Morrow


Persoonlijke website Jana Cox

28/02/2023 door Jana Cox

Jana Cox has a personal website where she displays her publications and findings in a blog format.

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Verdediging PhD Thesis Jana Cox

De eerst van de 8 onderzoeken binnen Rivers2Morrow is afgerond! Jana Cox heeft vanuit de Universiteit Utrecht onderzoek gedaan naar de sedimentbalans in de Rijn-Maas monding en de rol van sedimentbeheer hierin. Op 14 maart verdedigt Jana haar PhD thesis. Meer informatie is te vinden via de link.

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“De Rijn zit vol met data die ook elders toegepast kan worden.”

08/08/2023 door Jana Cox

Jana Cox (Universiteit Utrecht) deed binnen het programma van Rivers2Morrow onderzoek naar de Beneden Rijn-Maasdelta. Het onderzoek is inmiddels afgerond en de follow-up is...

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Interview Jana over werken voor Rijkswaterstaat

28/02/2023 door Jana Cox

PhD-student Jana Cox weet waarom onderzoek doen naar Nederlandse rivieren juist zo interessant is: ‘Nederland heeft dé kennisbank als het gaat om rivieren...'

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