River deltas, particularly deep dredged ones like the Rhine-Meuse are lacking in sediment, adaptation measures, particularly in the face of climate change, are urgently needed
Motivation and Practical Challenge
Most of the Dutch population live in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The delta area, like other deltas worldwide needs sufficient sediment (sand and mud) from upstream rivers and the coast to keep up with sea level rise. Since the 1500s, the delta area has been altered for navigation, reclaimed for housing and protected against floods through dikes and sluices. Recently, dredging in particular, has altered the amount of sediment entering the delta, which has negative impacts for flood safety, infrastructure and nature. This dredging takes place as ships grow in size which need to be accommodated by the Port of Rotterdam. We measure and predict how much sediment is removed annually and how this affects processes in the delta from historical times, to the current situation and into the next century. Other deltas globally are also facing the same challenges, which will get more serious with climate change.
The following questions will be adressed in the research
- What is the past, current and future sediment budget of the Rhine-Meuse delta?
- How much sediment is there and where is it located?
- How has/will human activities and climate change impact(ed) these activities?
- What solutions exist globally that could be applied to the delta to offset negative impacts of a negative sediment budget?
The following aspects can be considered innovative
- A current sediment budget is calculated using measurement data from the delta
- A future budget is predicted using climate predictions and a novel predictor for dredging
- A long term budget is predicted using historical and geological maps
- Effects of climate change are predicted using scale-experiments
- Potential erosion in certain areas is analyzed using 1D modelling
- Strategies which can offset negative effects from global case studies are analyzed through a review with multidisciplinary partners
Relevant for whom and where?
- People who live or work in river deltas
- Managers of rivers deltas
- Dredging/engineering firms
The findings and methods can be applied to other deltas globally
Findings and practical application
Urban developed deltas which experience dredging have negative sediment budgets.
In the case of the Rhine-Meuse, the distribution of this sediment also means that nature areas and infrastructure are at risk, meanwhile dredging costs will increase in the future
Human activity completely overwhelms climate change related sediment problems in the delta both now and in the future.
Deep systems like the Rhine-Meuse delta will see serious effects in the upstream riverine parts of the delta due to sea-level rise which creates risks for flooding and infrastructure.
The influence of human actions on the system has accelerated in the past 30 years, far beyond natural rates of change in the delta.
Strategies to enhance sedimentation exist, but they are expensive and require sufficient space to be implemented.
Status for day-to-day practice
The amount and distribution of sediment in river deltas needs to be quantified to identify where sediment is required and to apply potential adaptation measures. These measures require time and money to be implemented and effective.
In the Rhine-Meuse delta, the amount and circulation of sediment in the mouth area (what comes in from the sea) is difficult to quantify, but is an important puzzle piece in determining how the delta will adapt to climate change, more measurements are needed!
Last modified: 09/11/2022
Fine sediment budget in the Rhine-Meuse river mouth
Saved or starved? The importance of sediment management in determining the future response of estuaries and deltas.
09/03/2023 by Jana Cox
Anthropogenic Effects on the Contemporary Sediment Budget of the Lower Rhine‐Meuse Delta Channel Network
In this research, we construct sediment budgets which quantify annual changes for the urbanized Rhine‐Meuse Delta of the Netherlands, a typical urban delta experiences changing fluvial and coastal fluxes of sediment, engineering works and dredging and dumping activities. The delta shows a negative sediment budget (more outgoing than incoming sediment) since the 1980s, due to anthropogenic intervention.
01/07/2021 by Jana Cox
Poster "Saved or starved? The importance of sediment management in determining the future response of estuaries and deltas"
20/12/2022 by Jana Cox
Sediment deficit and morphological change of the Rhine–Meuse river mouth attributed to multi-millennial anthropogenic impacts
In this research, we trace the development of one system, the Rhine–Meuse delta in the Netherlands (RMD) from two natural estuaries (the RME fed by the Rhine river and the HVL fed by the Meuse river) to a densely urbanized delta and the effect human activities have had on its morphology through time.
15/07/2022 by Jana Cox
The Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Estuary Morphology in Dredged and Undredged Systems
We study the effect of SLR on natural versus dredged channels using scale experiments of river mouths to determine how SLR will affect dredging practice and the effects it will have on the channels (will they erode?) and surrounding areas (will they drown?).
06/06/2022 by Jana Cox
A global synthesis of the effectiveness of sedimentation-enhancing strategies for river deltas and estuaries
This synthesis enables intercomparison between SES and helps to further evaluate advantages and drawbacks of each SES. It can also help to guide the design of future strategies in other deltas. Our comparison includes their cost, their (projected) elevation gain, spatial footprints, lifetime, land-use, and required governance arrangements.
01/07/2022 by Jana Cox
Effects of Sea-Level Rise on Dredging and Dredged Estuary Morphology
Using scale experiments, empirical relations and real world examples from global estuaries and deltas, we identify that dredging and SLR combined enhance bend migration whereas SLR alone leads to decentralizing of channels and drowning of intertidal area.
05/10/2022 by Jana Cox
Historic narrowing and deepening of the Rhine-Meuse estuary causes long term sediment deprivation
In this research, we trace this history of human influence on the channels and morphology of the RMD including embanking, land reclamation, dredg- ing and major engineering constructions which have created an urban delta.
13/04/2022 by Jana Cox
Future sediment budget and distribution for the Rhine-Meuse delta
The Rhine-Meuse delta in the Netherlands has a negative sediment budget, i.e. it annually looses sediment. In this research, we construct a sediment budget for two future scenarios 2050 and 2085 which incorporate both socio-economic change and climate scenarios for the region
11/02/2021 by Jana Cox
A sediment budget for the Rhine-Meuse estuary: importance of dredging and the North Sea sediment flux
In this research, a sediment budget is created for the Rhine-Meuse Estuary (RME) located in the West of the Netherlands for the period 2000- 2018. This budget is also juxtaposed with previous budgets for the area to see how the current sediment budget compares
12/07/2022 by Jana Cox
Blog Jana Cox
05/10/2022 by Jana Cox
Jana Cox has a personal website where she displays her publications and findings in a blog format.
PHD Thesis Defence Jana Cox
The first of the 8 researches within Rivers2Morrow has been completed! Jana Cox has done here research at Utrecht University, investigating the sediment balance in the Rhine-Meuse estuary and the role of sediment management in this. Jana will defend her PhD thesis on March 14th. More information can be found by visiting the external link below.
First PhD research within the Rivers2Morrow Research Programme has been completed.
14/03/2023 by Jana Cox
It is with great pride and pleasure that to inform you that the first PhD research within the Rivers2Morrow research programme has been completed....
Interview Jana about doing research for Rijkswaterstaat
23/02/2023 by Jana Cox
PhD student Jana Cox knows why researching Dutch rivers is precisely what makes them so interesting: "The Netherlands has the knowledge base when it...
Explenatory Video Jana Cox: Sediment Budget of the present Rhine-Meuse Estuary